The fresh new gonostyli is showcased within the red-colored, and can be clearly noticed in recently mated queens

The fresh new gonostyli is showcased within the red-colored, and can be clearly noticed in recently mated queens

Ladies genitalia out-of Yards. fasciculata and you may methods to own mating plug coupling. (A) Virgin girls genitalia during the frontal glance at. (B) Men genitalia out-of pre-copula men, addressing the feminine genitalia. (C–E) Genital product, metasomal sterna S-VIII and S-IX. (F) Male genitalia creating the fresh new coupling of the plug: ventral look at genital supplement and you may metasomal sternum S-IX projecting out of the system of one’s men because of the a telescopic direction. (G) Male genital product isolated off male’s body, which have knob regulators brought about, gonostyli against the opposite position when it comes to the first. (H) Metasomal sterna S-VIII and S-IX, where sternum S-IX assumes on the brand spanking new standing during the male’s instinct. (I) Mating connect in detail, proving new lateral compressing regarding gonocoxites. (J) The new vaginal chamber of good connected people: brand new membranous area containing brand new mating plug connected.

Throughout the non-Melipona species (F

longipes, S. aff. Postica, and P. minima), i seen strong cock regulators having mediator curve and you will a diminished spatha ( Shape step 1)paring all round morphology of cock regulators and you may spatha out-of Yards. fasciculata to another examined kinds, i unearthed that both Meters. flavolineata and you may Yards. seminigra provides narrow dick regulators which have reasonable curve. But not, Meters. seminigra has actually faster valves than check this simply M. flavolineata, and you can an established spatha when comparing to others Melipona ( Shape 1).

Dysfunction of hypothesized plugging steps

The very last status off mating plugs to the mated girls paired the fresh new condition of your own male’s instinct during copulation because of “J” way and you can positioning around woman’s abdomen ( Shape 4C). Throughout physogastric queens off Meters. fasciculata, we observed the mating connect linked to the membranous vaginal pockets because of the knob valves, into spatha facial skin situated into the the feminine ventral bit, placed under the gonopore ( Figure 3J). We propose that this new mating connect method was caused in the event the male genital pill are irreversibly protruded of male’s looks, which leads to altered positions of the gonostyli, penis valves, and you will gonocoxites.

The newest mating group of M. fasciculata, centered on a video number away from mating out of an associated types. All the way through: (A) male in flight, trying status in itself along the women; (B) positioned men, indicating pairs away from legs installing along the woman’s human anatomy; (C) male increasing the abdomen of one’s girls; (D) male leaving the feminine immediately after successful mating, which is, the fresh new mating connect attachment. In all bits, men wings is actually portrayed to help you depict its course while in the mating, according to Second Films S1 .

The newest mating collection of M. fasciculata, according to a video clip list away from mating out-of a related kinds. From top to bottom: (A) men in flight, seeking position in itself along the ladies; (B) arranged male, demonstrating pairs out of ft fitting along side female’s human body; (C) male enhancing the instinct of people; (D) men leaving the feminine once effective mating, which is, the fresh new mating plug attachment. In all parts, male wings are portrayed so you’re able to represent its path throughout the mating, based on Second Movies S1 .

According to the comparison between sleep state from vaginal products and you may caused state regarding mating plugs, their useful morphology, along with video details to your mating behavior off a closely relevant varieties ( Additional Video clips S1 ), i advise that causing out of mating connect occurs in 5 hypothetical methods ( Rates step three and 4):

After immobilizing the female muscles, the male inserts his metasomal sternum S-VIII beneath the girls tergum T-VI, training it ( Contour 4C).

Just like the females genital chamber try opened ( Contour 3A), the male gonostyli touches the woman’s vaginal part. Immediately following positioning the newest sternum S-VIII, a man metasomal sternum S-IX protrudes outside of the male’s looks towards the the latest woman’s vaginal chamber along with the genital tablet, by the good telescopic course ( Profile 3F). Brand new insertion regarding men genital supplement towards females genital chamber is not followed by the fresh new gonostyli, and this disperse backwards during the techniques, remaining outside the women vaginal chamber ( Figure 3G).

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